The Historical Background:

• too little influence by the Irish on local affairs

• discontent in Ireland

• Home Rule League

• Local Government Act 1898

• Land Purchase Act of 1903

• Parliament Act 1911

• >improvement of society

• demand of Home Rule still existed

• 1915 foundation of the Military Council and the Provisional Government

• Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB) planed insurrection (military manoeuvre) on 23rd April 1916. England in WWІ – “England’s difficulty is Ireland’s opportunity”

Imortant Persons:

James Connolly

• *1868 in Edinburgh

• leader of the socialist idea at this time

• was in the British Army/stationed in Dublin until 1896

• founded thi Ierish Socialist Republican Party

• participated in the foundation of the Irish Citizen Army (1913)

• decided on a connection between Irich Citizen Army and Irich Republican Brotherhood

• was commandant at Easter Rising

• punished/executed on 12th May 1916

Patrick Pearse

• spent his whole life in Dublin (1879-1916)

• 1895: member of the Gaelic League ( one of its leaders)

• 1913: one of the founders of the Irish Volunteers/ joined the IRB in 1914

• was author of the proclamation of the Irish Republic and leader of the Easter Rising

• sentences to death and killed (3rd May 1916)


Thomas James Clarke

*1857 at Isle of Whight/ moved to Ireland

• when he was 18 years old he became member of the IRB

• 1883: plans to destroy London Bridge > prison for 15 years

• stayed in America for some years then came back to Ireland 1907

• worked again in the IRB

• became member of the Irish Volunteers/ helped organizing the Easter Rising

• imprsionment/ execution(3rd May 1916)

Eamon de Valera

*1882 in New York City

• grew up at his grandparents in Ireland

• studied mathematics after finishing school

• became member of the Gaelic League

• was one of the founders of the Irish Volunteers in 1913

• participated in the Easter Rising in 1916 and was sentenced to death

>punishment was reduced to life imprisonment because of his American origin

The Insurrection:

• 21st April: – Shipment of arms from Germany captured.

• owing to the capture of shipment and the refusal of the military manoeuvre insurrection postponed until 24th April – Chance of success? “None whatever”

• about 1500 ill-equipped insurgents occupied buildingsto be in advantage

• Proclamation: independence – equality – right for freedom and sovereignty- political, economic and social change- insurrection as a part of a long-established action

• Michael Collins dominant figure” most effective and efficient officer in the place”

• British came with artillery- destroyed Dublin- civilian victim of insurrection

• unconditional surrender with the duty to save the Irish civilians

• 450 killed (250civilians)- about 2600 injured- 9 missing- about 3000 arrests- 16 executions

Consequences of the Easter Rising:

• Leaders were executed except for Eamon de Valera

(had an American origin and the Bristish did not want to risk a fight with the USA)

• Irish population was scandalized by executions,arrests and brutality

/fighters became martyrs/number of members in Sinn Féin increased.

• After other revolts( e.g: Civil War/ Anglo-Irish-War): Ireland became independent in 1949

• Easter Rising : foundatio of the IRA

Even today they fight for unity between the Republic and Northern Ireland.

• Easter Rising as exanple for the Bengali who started the Chittagong revolt

to drive the English out of India.

Sources:

http://clarelibrary.ie

http://historylearningsite.co.uk

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/easterrising/insurrection/in01.shtml

http://historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?HistoryID=ac70&ParagraphID=odg#odg

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Easter_Rising


By Hannah Knopf and Hai Nguyen

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